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Ingolstadt was first mentioned in a document of Charlemagne on 6 February as "Ingoldes stat", the place of Ingold. Circa , Ingolstadt was granted city status.
Ingolstadt was the capital of the Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt between and Ingolstadt was then united with Bavaria-Landshut. Louis VII, Duke of Bavaria ordered the building of the New Castle as well as the Church of Our Lady Münster zur Schönen Unseren Lieben Frau , also known as "Upper Parish" Obere Pfarr , whose form was strongly influenced by French Gothic architecture.
In Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria founded the University of Ingolstadt which became the Ludwig-Maximilians-University. In it was moved to Landshut and in eventually to Munich.
The University of Ingolstadt was an important defender of the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation era, led by such notable scholars as Johann Eck.
Ingolstadt is where William IV, Duke of Bavaria wrote and signed the Bavarian Reinheitsgebot in In the Battle of Ingolstadt in May , the Black Company — a unit of Franconian farmers and knights fighting on the side of the peasants during the German Peasants' War — took their last stand at Ingolstadt against the Swabian League , all eventually being defeated and killed.
On 30 April , the German field marshal Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly died at Ingolstadt during a Swedish siege of the city.
The field marshal had been badly wounded in a previous engagement with the Swedes under King Gustavus Adolphus.
Ingolstadt proved to be the first fortress in Germany that held out for the entire length of the Swedish siege, and the Swedes eventually withdrew.
The remains of Gustavus Adolphus' horse can be seen in the City Museum. The horse was shot from under the king by one of the cannons inside the fortress, a cannon known as "The Fig".
It has remained thus for almost years. In , Adam Weishaupt , the founder of the Order of Illuminati , was born in Ingolstadt.
After the French invasion in the fortress was demolished and the university was relocated to Landshut. Originally a fortress city, Ingolstadt is enclosed by a medieval defensive wall.
The Bavarian fortress — now holds the museum of the Bavarian army. During World War I , future French president Charles de Gaulle was detained there as a prisoner of war.
A sappers ' drill ground lies next to the river, and two military air bases are located nearby, one used for testing aircraft.
The long military tradition of the city is reflected in today's civil and cultural life. Former "off-limit" military training areas have been converted into well-used public parks.
Adolf Scherzer composed the "Bayerischen Defiliermarsch". Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was set at the Ingolstädter Alte Anatomie Old Anatomy Building , now a museum for medical history.
In , the car manufacturer Auto Union first arrived in the city. The company's original factories in Chemnitz and Zwickau both then in Soviet controlled East Germany were shattered during the war , and were seized by the Russians as reparations.
Auto Union executives initially started a spare parts operation in Ingolstadt in the immediate post war period, with a view to relocating the entire company to the region.
With the help of Marshall Plan aid, Auto Union was formally re-founded in Ingolstadt in , ultimately evolving into the modern-era Audi company , after it was taken over by Volkswagen in Today, Audi is the region's largest employer and now dominates the economy of the city.
As one of five ducal residences of medieval Bavaria—besides Landshut , Munich , Straubing and Burghausen —the city of Ingolstadt features many Gothic buildings, such as the Herzogskasten 'old ducal castle', ca.
The largest church is the Gothic hall church of Our Lady Liebfrauenmunster , which was begun in The church was built to serve as a second parish church besides Saint Maurice as well as the burial place for Louis and his family and intended to be the official burial place for the future Dukes of Bavaria-Ingolstadt.
Its peculiar and rare angle of footprint was emulated in the 20th century built Cathedral of Newark. Also the churches of Saint Maurice and of the Gnadenthal and Franciscans monasteries date from the Gothic era.
The Kreuztor is one of the remaining gates of the old city wall and to this day the key landmark of the city. The Gothic Old City Hall was constructed in the 14th century, and later altered several times.
The Baroque era is represented by the Old Anatomy Building of the university —, designed by Gabriel de Gabrieli and the church St. Maria de Victoria, which was built by the Asam brothers — The church of the Augustinians of Johann Michael Fischer was completely destroyed in World War II.
Many buildings of the neo-classical fortification of Leo von Klenze have been preserved, such as the Reduit Tilly and the towers Baur and Triva.
As well as being the home of the headquarters of the car manufacturer Audi , the town is also home to Audi's museum mobile , which is open to the public and presents historic exhibits and offers guided tours.
Ingolstadt is a green city with numerous parks, green spaces and forests. The most prominent of these is the " Glacis ", formerly an open space in front of the city walls, now surrounding the historic city center.
It functions as a "green belt" and a buffer area between traffic, residential areas and schools. It is possible to traverse it using spacious paths for pedestrians and cyclists, with a good view of the site of the former fortifications, including a well-preserved section of the ditch.
The biggest park in the city, at about 50 acres, is the Klenzepark , which contained the former Ingolstadt State Fortress , and was the site of the Landesgartenschau in , is also a part of the Glacis.
Klenzepark is north of the Danube river, opposite the Ingolstadt old town. In the warm seasons about , visitors use the park every month, mostly young people.
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Bavaria , largest Land state of Germany, comprising the entire southeastern portion of the country.
Bavaria is bounded to the north by the states of Thuringia and Saxony, to the east by the Czech Republic, to the south and southeast by Austria, and to the west by the states….
Danube River , river, the second longest in Europe after the Volga. It rises in the Black Forest mountains of western Germany and flows for some 1, miles 2, km to its mouth on the Black Sea.
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